The latest issue of Palaestra is now published and is posted at



7          Guest Editor’s Corner


Practical Pointer

8          Incorporating Martial Arts to Physical Education

by Michelle Liu


Feature Articles

13        Assessing Physical Activity Levels in Children/Youth Living with Fragile X Syndrome

by Philip M. Wilson, Diane E. Mack, and Mila Janjic-Zarab


18        Modifications and Adaptations for Successful Inclusion in Aquatics for Individuals with Visual Impairment

by Lauren Bach


22        Celebrating Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion: A Disability Awareness Event for Girl Scouts

by Matt Martin, Cassandra Forsythe, and Steve Famiglietti


28        Goalball as a Factor of Physical Rehabilitation of Students with Visual Impairments

by Sergey Kokhan, Elena Romanova, Luiza Nadeina, Tetiana Skaliy, Witold Kowalski, Tsvetelina Petrova-Gotova, and Mariya Krasimirova Lazarova


37        A Practical Guide for Assessment of Skill Development in Wheelchair Basketball Athletes

by Ryan T. Conners, Kathryn L. Rodebaugh, Glenn Cundari, and Robert G. Cochrum


43        The Effects of Adapted Physical Education Practicums on Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers’ Confidence

by Mihye Jeong, Martin Block, So-Yeun Kim, Hyunkyoung Oh, and Hyo-Kyung Lee


48        Sports Bars and ADA Compliance: Analyzing Accessibility for Places of Building Social Identity

by Michaela Lindsly, Kristyn Tallo, Joshua R. Pate, Jeremy J. Foreman, and Olivia Larkins


54        SPIRIT Club’s Universal Fitness Model is Designed to Make All Bodies Strong

by Jared Ciner


59        Bits and Pieces

61        Resources

63        Information for Authors